Abstract：Laser shock peening (LSP) is a new surface modification technology that uses laser-induced plasma shock waves to improve the fatigue life of materials. Through the mechanical action of shock waves, the plastic deformation of materials surface occurs at a high strain rate, which can significantly improve the surface microstructure of materials, realize grain refinement, increase dislocation density, and form dislocation tangles, dislocation walls as well as other structures. Based on LSP, warm laser shock peening (WLSP) and cryogenic laser shock peening (CLSP) can further improve the residual stress stability of materials by dynamic strain aging (DSA) effect, dynamic precipitation (DP) effect, high-density deformation twinning, and stacking faults. Based on the evolution of the microstructure of metal surface, LSP technology can significantly increase the hardness and yield strength of material, thereby effectively improve the working stability of component. In addition, LSP technology can also enhance the corrosion resistance and fatigue life of materials to broaden the application field of LSP processing materials.