Full matrix is an A-Scan data set of all transmit and receive elements’ combinations. Array ultrasound nondestructive testing and evaluation technology based on full matrix uses specific post-processing algorithm to image and quantify defects inside the test pieces. Compared with traditional phased array methods, algorithms based on full matrix have much higher imaging resolution and quantitative accuracy. On the other hands, full matrix algorithms can be customized according to geometrical or material properties of testing pieces. It’s the next generation ultrasonic array testing and evaluation method. This paper systematically summarizes the fundamental, typical algorithms, key technologies, and applications of ultrasonic array technology based on the FMC, aiming to promote the technology and lower the application threshold, and to provide new ideas and new methods for the challenge of non-destructive testing and evaluation in highend manufacturing industry.