Abstract：With the improvement of machine tool processing performance and tool cutting performance, high efficiency and high precision machining of aviation structural parts becomes possible. There are many thin-wall features of aviation structural parts, which are prone to deformation during the milling process. Therefore, the prediction and control of aviation structural parts deformation is an urgent problem to be solved in the field of machining. Through summarizing the characteristics and processing difficulties of aviation structural parts, the forming mechanism of machining deformation is deeply analyzed. This paper summarizes the milling force model that is most critical to processing deformation, and explains the research progress of residual stress and deformation prediction of aviation structural parts. Machining process optimization, numerical control compensation technology and high-speed cutting technology are the main strategies to realize the deformation control of aviation structural parts. Finally, the future development is forecasted.